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Article 13Use of protected content by online content sharing service providers -1. Without prejudice to Article 3(1) and (2) of Directive 2001/29/EC, online content sharing service providers perform an act of communication to the public and shall conclude fair and appropriate licensing agreements with rightholders, unless the rightholder does not wish to grant a license or licenses are not available. Licensing agreements concluded by the online content sharing service providers with rightholders shall cover the liability for works uploaded by the users of their services in line with terms and conditions set out in the licensing agreement, provided that those users do not act for commercial purposes or are not the rightholder or his representative.1. Online content sharing service providers referred to in paragraph -1 shall, in cooperation with rightholders, take appropriate and proportionate measures to ensure the functioning of licensing agreements where concluded with rightholders for the use of their works or other subject-matter on those services. In the absence of licensing agreements with rightholders online content sharing service providers shall take, in cooperation with rightholders, appropriate and proportionate measures leading to the non-availability on those services of works or other subject matter infringing copyright or related-rights, while non-infringing works and other subject matter shall remain available.1a. Member States shall ensure that the online content sharing service providers referred to in paragraph -1 shall apply the measures referred to in paragraph 1 based on the relevant information provided by rightholders.The online content sharing service providers shall be transparent towards rightholders and shall inform rightholders of the measures employed, their implementation, as well as when relevant, shall periodically report on the use of the works and other subject-matter.1b. Members States shall ensure that the implementation of such measures shall be proportionate and strike a balance between the fundamental rights of users and rightholders and shall in accordance with Article 15 of Directive 2000/31/EC, where applicable, not impose a general obligation on online content sharing service providers to monitor the information which they transmit or store.2. To prevent misuses or limitations in the exercise of exceptions and limitations to copyright, Member States shall ensure that the service providers referred to in paragraph 1 put in place effective and expeditious complaints and redress mechanisms that are available to users in case of disputes over the application of the measures referred to in paragraph 1. Any complaint filed under such mechanisms shall be processed without undue delay. The rightholders shall reasonably justify their decisions to avoid arbitrary dismissal of complaints.Moreover, in accordance with Regulation (UE) 2016/679 and Directive 2002/58/EC, the measures referred to in paragraph 1 shall not require the identification of individual users and the processing of their personal data.Member States shall also ensure that, in the context of the application of the measures referred to in paragraph 1, users have access to a court or other relevant judicial authority to assert the use of an exception or limitation to copyright.3. Member States shall facilitate, where appropriate, the cooperation between the online content sharing service providers, users and rightholders through stakeholder dialogues to define best practices for the implementation of the measures referred to in paragraph 1 in a manner that is proportionate and efficient, taking into account, among others, the nature of the services, the availability of technologies and their effectiveness in light of technological developments.Article 13aMember States shall provide that disputes between successors in title and information society services regarding the application of Article 13(1) may be subject to an alternative dispute resolution system.Member States shall establish or designate an impartial body with the necessary expertise, with the aim of helping the parties to settle their disputes under this system.The Member States shall inform the Commission of the establishment of this body no later than (date mentioned in Article 21(1)).Article 13bUse of protected content by information society services providing automated image referencingMember States shall ensure that information society service providers that automatically reproduce or refer to significant amounts of copyright-protected visual works and make them available to the public for the purpose of indexing and referencing conclude fair and balanced licensing agreements with any requesting rightholders in order to ensure their fair remuneration. Such remuneration may be managed by the collective management organisation of the rightholders concerned.Article 13cPrinciple of fair and proportionate remuneration1. Member States shall ensure that authors and performers receive fair and proportionate remuneration for the exploitation of their works and other subject matter, including for their online exploitation. This may be achieved in each sector through a combination of agreements, including collective bargaining agreements, and statutory remuneration mechanisms.2. Paragraph 1 shall not apply where an author or performer grants a non-exclusive usage right for the benefit of all users free of charge.3. Member States shall take account of the specificities of each sector in encouraging the proportionate remuneration for rights granted by authors and performers.4. Contracts shall specify the remuneration applicable to each mode of exploitation.